Sixtus avoided persecution for many months. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Although Stephen firmly upheld the Roman rule that rendered rebaptism unnecessary, Sixtus, supposedly influenced by Bishop St. Dionysius the Great of Alexandria, adopted a more conciliatory attitude by tolerating the Eastern policies of rebaptism. Learn how Saint Nicholas became a part of Christmas in a biography written for children. Bishop of Rome. Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church. Political activities. The martyrdom of St. Sixtus was dramatic. The remains of Sixtus were transferred by the Christians to the papal crypt in the neighbouring cemetery of St. Callistus. Saint Sixtus II, (born, Greece?—died Aug. 6, 258, Rome [Italy]; feast day August 7), pope from 257 to 258, one of the early Roman Church’s most venerated martyrs. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Sixtus-II. He thus restored relations with those churches that had been severed by Stephen because of the conflict and sent an envoy to Bishop St. Cyprian of Carthage, Stephen’s opponent. Harnack (Texte und Untersuchungen zur altchrist. The "Liber Pontificalis" says that he was a Greek by birth, but this is probably a mistake, originating from the false assumption that he was identical with a Greek philosopher of the same name, who was the author of the so-called "Sentences" of Xystus. For protection, Sixtus gathered (Aug. 6, 258) his congregation for services in the subterranean cemetery of Praetextatus on the Appian Way. Elected 31 Aug., 257, martyred at Rome, 6 Aug., 258. Sixtus II (XYSTUS), Saint, POPE, elected August 31, 257, martyred at Rome, August 6, 258.His origin is unknown. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. [1] The Tridentine Calendar commemorated Sixtus, Felicissimus, and Agapitus on the feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord, 6 August. He was martyred along with seven deacons, including Lawrence of Rome during the persecution of Christians by Emperor Valerian. Autograph signature to a document, 1590 Mar. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine … The “Liber Pontificalis” says that he was a Greek by birth, but this is probably a mistake, originating from the false assumption that he was identical with a Greek philosopher of the same name, who was the author of the so-called “Sentences” of Xystus. Died: 6 August 258 AD in Rome, Italy. This Week's Stories. Pope Sixtus II was bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 until his death on 6 August 258. Corrections? It is certain that Pope Sixtus II is not their author (see Conybeare, "The Ring of Pope Xystus now first rendered into English, with an historical and critical commentary", London, 1910). Of Greek origin, Sixtus was a deacon of the Church of Rome under Bishop Stephen.Nothing is known of his early life. Pope Sixtus II St. Sixtus † Deceased Pope (Roma {Rome}, Italy) Events. His origin is unknown. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). There, he and four deacons, Saints Januarius, Vincent, Magnus, and Stephen, were seized and either beheaded immediately or brought to court and returned for execution. Another composition written at Rome, between 253 and 258, is generally agreed to be his. Our pope this week is one of the greatest heroes of the ancient Church that you’ve never heard of. He was martyred along with six deacons— Januarius, Vincentius, Magnus, Stephanus, Felicissimus and Agapitus. [1] Contents. He died as a martyr during the persecution by Emperor Valerian. A new edict focused on essential targets. found: Catholic Encyclopedia www site, 5 Oct. 2007: Pope St. Sixtus II page (elected 31 Aug. 257, martyred at Rome, 6 Aug. 258; Xystus) Change Notes 1981-11-02 : new Pope Sixtus II was one of the first victims of this persecution, being beheaded on 6 August. Behind his tomb was enshrined the bloodstained chair on which he had been beheaded But in early August 258, Valerian got serious. But in early August 258, Valerian got serious. [1], According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was born in Greece and was a philosopher;[2] however, this is uncertain, and is disputed by modern western historians arguing that the authors of Liber Pontificalis confused him with that of the contemporary author Xystus, who was a Greek student of Pythagoreanism.[1]. In the persecutions under Emperor Valerian in 258, numerous bishops, priests, and deacons were put to death. From the Catholic Encyclopedia (XYSTUS). Sixtus II had to be consecrated as Pope in secret because of the times. A Greek pope, Sixtus II led the Church during Emperor Valerian's rule, a difficult time for Christians. Saint Sixtus II, (born, Greece?—died Aug. 6, 258, Rome [Italy]; feast day August 7), pope from 257 to 258, one of the early Roman Church’s most venerated martyrs. Pope St. Sixtus I (in the oldest documents, Xystus is the spelling used for the first three popes of that name), succeeded St. Alexander and was followed by St. Telesphorus.According to the "Liberian Catalogue" of popes, he ruled the Church during the reign of Adrian "a conulatu Nigri et Aproniani usque Vero III et Ambibulo", that is, from 117 to 126. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. Born in Greece, he was pope for just a short period before becoming a martyr for his position and beliefs. The faithful offered their necks to the sword, but as soon as the Pastor saw the ones who wished to rob him of the palm (of martyrdom) he was the first to offer himself and his own head, not tolerating that the (pagan) frenzy should harm the others. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's Basilica, in the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. Life; Legacy; See … St Sixtus and Companions by Fra Angelico Saint Sixtus II, Pope, and Companions, MartyrsEarly Third Century – 258 August 7—Optional MemorialLiturgical Color: RedPatron Saint of Bellegra, Italy The Pope is murdered in cold blood The sixth pope was named the “Sixth” or, in Latin, “Sixtus.” He reigned from 115–125 A.D. Updates? Sixtus II is referred to by name in the Roman Canon of the Mass. Pope Saint Sixtus II Profile. Pierpont Morgan Library. Date Event Title; 31 Aug 257: Elected: Pope (Roma {Rome}, Italy) 6 Aug 258: Died: Pope (Roma {Rome}, Italy) MicroData Summary for St. Sixtus (VIAF: 1336166) Pope St. Sixtus (died 6 Aug 258) Pope of Roma {Rome} Event Place Birth Place: Greece; "Saint Sixtus II and Companions", Franciscan Media, "St. Xystus, or Sixtus II., Pope and Martyr", Collected works by Migne Patrologia Latina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Sixtus_II&oldid=997815278, Christian martyrs executed by decapitation, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 10:42. Bishops, priests, and deacons could be put to death without a trial. He was elected in August 257 to succeed Pope St. Stephen I, during whose pontificate there arose a conflict with certain Eastern churches over the rebaptism of converted heretics. 19 by Adolf von Harnack ( Book ); Saint Laurence of Rome: his ordination as a deacon by Pope Sixtus II. He succeeded Pope Alexander I and was in turn succeeded by Pope Telesphorus. Pope Sixtus II was one of the first victims of this persecution, being beheaded on 6 August. Although Michelangelo completed a tomb for Julius, the pope was instead interred in St. Peter's near his uncle, Sixtus IV. He was martyred along with seven deacons, including Lawrence of Rome during the persecution of Christians by Emperor Valerian. vom Jahre 257/8, Zur Petrusapokalypse, Patristisches zu Luc. 257.08.30 – 258.08.06. Pope St. Sixtus II. Rufinus ascribes them to Sixtus of Rome, bishop and martyr. Omissions? Sixtus is thought by some to be the author of the pseudo-Cyprianic writing Ad Novatianum, though this view has not found general acceptance. Pope Sixtus V (December 13, 1521 - August 27, 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope from April 24, 1585 to August 27, 1590. Sixtus II of Rome, also Xystus from Greek: Ξυστος, was the bishop of Rome from 257 to 258. Julius II viewed as the main task of his pontificate the restoration of the Papal States, which had been reduced to ruin by the Borgias.Large portions of it had been appropriated by Venice after Alexander VI’s death. The following inscription honoring Sixtus was placed on his tomb in the catacomb of Callixtus by Pope Damasus I: At the time when the sword pierced the bowels of the Mother, I, buried here, taught as Pastor the Word of God; when suddenly the soldiers rushed in and dragged me from the chair. A Roman of Greek descent, Sixtus was elected to the papacy in 257. The feast of St. Sixtus II and these six deacons is celebrated on 6 August, the day of their martyrdom. Sixtus II was one of the early popes who came from Greece. Saint Nicholas December 06. Image credit: Pope Sixtus II by Sandro Botticelli, 15th century. for more about Pope Sixtus, see http://catholicsaints.info/pope-saint-sixtus-ii/ creatorOf: Sixtus V, Pope, 1520-1590. Sixtus II & Felicissimus & Agapitus here and here St. Cajetan Cajetan, a co-founder of the Theatines, received the office of protonotary at Rome from Pope Julius II when still quite young. The next Sixtus was today’s… He was known as "the Warrior Pope." A new edict focused on essential targets. Vicar of Jesus Christ. His alleged authorship of the Sentences of Sextus (a collection of maxims on spiritual perfection) is dubious. Ruled from 257-258. University of Pennsylvania Library: referencedIn: Fundación y dotación, con la Bula necesaria de Sisto Quinto, echa por Dña. Pope Sixtus I (42 – 124, 125, 126 or 128), a Roman of Greek descent, was the Bishop of Rome from c. 115 to his death c. 124. Saint Nicholas was a bishop known now as Santa Claus. He was martyred along with six deacons during the persecution of the Catholic Church by Emperor Valerian. His feast is celebrated on 6 April. Pope Sixtus II was bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 until his death on 6 August 258. He was martyred along with six deacons— Januarius, Vincentius, Magnus, Stephanus, Felicissimus and Agapitus. [1] Lawrence of Rome, his best-known deacon, suffered martyrdom on 10 August, four days after his bishop.[3]. He decreed that the people should chant with the priest during the Sanctus at the Holy Communion section of the Catholic Mass.. He was martyred along with seven deacons, including Lawrence of Rome during the persecution of Christians by Emperor Valerian. Worked in Italy. Pope Julius II appears to have been more interested in the status of the papacy than his own personal fame; nevertheless, his name will be forever linked with some of the most remarkable artistic works of the 16th century. [5], Miller, OFM, Don. His family was poor. In 257, the formerly peaceable Emperor Valerian issued an anti-Christian edict which forbade Christians from assembling in cemeteries. As a first step as pope, Julius subjugated Perugia and Bologna in the autumn of 1508. Buried in the nearby cemetery of Callistus, Sixtus later became one of the most revered martyrs of the early church. Pope Sixtus I (also known as Xystus) was the sixth successor to Saint Peter as the Bishop of Rome of the Catholic Church.He served from approximately 116-125 C.E. Shortly after Sixtus’ election, the Roman emperor Valerian promulgated his first decree against the Christians, and a violent persecution ensued. Successor of the Prince of the Apostles. He died a martyr during the persecution of emperor Valerian. He repaired the rift between the sees of Rome and Carthage that had developed over the issue of baptism and rebaptism. Pope Sixtus II (died 6 August 258) was the Pope or Bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 until his death on 6 August 258. Eine bisher nicht erkannte Schrift des Papstes Sixtus II. He died a martyr. You can read about the beheading of Pope Saint Sixtus II and his life in this article. Contents[show] Biography Early life Felice Peretti was born on December 13, 1521 at Grottammare, in the Papal States, to Pier Gentile (also known as Peretto Peretti), and Marianna da Frontillo. Well, at least, not until now. Subsequent legend wrongly claims his martyrdom by crucifixion. They remained in that position in the General Roman Calendar until 1969, when, with the abolition of commemorations, the memorial of Sixtus "and his companions" was moved to 7 August, the day immediately after that of their death.[4]. He is commemorated on August 7.. Life. Like his predecessor Stephen, Sixtus believed that baptism is a once-in-a-lifetime event, but unlike Stephen, Sixtus tolerated those who rebaptized. Although Stephen firmly upheld the Roman rule that rendered … Sixtus avoided persecution for many months. He was elected in August 257 to succeed Pope St. Stephen I, during whose pontificate there arose a conflict with certain Eastern churches over the rebaptism of converted heretics. Martyred with St. Lawrence and six other deacons. Born: the 3rd Century in Greece, Europe. Early Life. A marble tombstone marks the site. Pope Sixtus II was bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 until his death on 6 August 258. …a vigorous reformer who succeeded Sixtus II as pope, faced the urgent task of reorganizing the church....…, …the Roman church serving Pope Sixtus II, whose martyrdom preceded Lawrence’s by a few days: they were...…, Roman Catholicism, Christian church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western...…. He was only pope for a short time, but his witness and heroic martyrdom left a mark that has echoed down through the centuries. Pope Julius II (Latin: Iulius Secundus; December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), originally Giuliano Della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 217th Pope from 1503 until his death in 1513. Public Domain via Wikimedia. Lawrence of Rome, his best-known deacon, suffered martyrdom on 10 August, 3 days after his bishop, as Sixtus had prophesied. He is considered a Saint by the Catholic Church. 31 December 1481. Metropolitan Archbishop of … Almost 18 centuries, in fact. Pope Sixtus II or Pope Saint Sixtus II (a corruption of Greek Ξυστος, Xystus, "polished") was Pope from 30 August 257 to 6 August 258. On August 6, 258, Pope Sixtus II was with his flock, seated and preaching the word of God, probably at Mass, in the catacombs. Pope Sixtus II was bishop of Rome from 31 August 257 until his death on 6 August 258. Pope Saint Sixtus II (also called Xystus, meaning "polished") was bishop of Rome from August 30, 257 to August 6, 258.He died a brutal death as a martyr during the persecution of Christians by Emperor Valerian. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sixtus II was the 24th pope and the second of four men to use the name Sixtus. He was the nephew of Pope Sixtus IV. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 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