Mineshi SAKAMOTO, Takaaki ITAI, Katsuyuki MURATA, Effects of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure: From Minamata Disease to Environmental Health Studies, Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene), … Curr Opin Pediatr. Minamata is an industrial city on the Yatsushiro coast of Japan on the southernmost island (Kyushu). Epub 2015 Aug 12. Minamata disease Last Updated on Sat, 05 Dec 2020 | Toxic Effects Minamata is an industrial city on the Yatsushiro coast of Japan on the southernmost island (Kyushu). A number of villages are located on or near a neighboring bay. USA.gov. The fishermen were catching fish and seafood in the waters of Minamata Bay, waters which proved to be heavily contaminated with methyl mercury. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The level of mercury in the body is tested with hair samples and it is widely agreed that when these levels are higher than 50ppm (parts per million), there is likely to be nerve damage. Minamata Health Centre in Japan on a myste-rious series of four cases of the same, unknown neurological disease (Social Scientific Study Group on Minamata Disease 1999). The effluent, containing inorganic mercury and discharged into the bay from the factory, was not dispersed in the water, but formed sediment at the bottom where micro-organisms converted the mercury into the more toxic methyl-mercury. At Kumamoto University, research suggested that the disease was a type of heavy metal poisoning transmitted by fish and shellfish. Epub 2019 Jun 19. 2016 May 3;71(3):170-7. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2015.1080153. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Others developed shaking ( tremors) in their arms and legs, difficulty walking, and even brain damage. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic. Minamata disease, sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease, is a neurological disease caused by severe mercury poisoning.  |  In i966 the factory installed a water circulation system which removed the mercury pollution. A second epidemic in Japan occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture. Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata City in Kumamoto prefecture, Japanin 1956. Local people who consumed seafood from Minamata Bay became very sick, … I'd like to talk about the tardive effects of methylmercury poisoning around Minamata. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! These would be eaten by larger, predatory fish and so the methyl mercury passed up the food plastics plastics. However, they showed difficulties in head control, sitting, and walking, and showed disturbances in mental development, these symptoms that are similar to those of cerebral palsy, during the growth periods after birth. He T, Shen H, Zhu J, Zhu Y, He Y, Li Z, Lu H. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Aug;20(2):1499-1508. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10396. Minamata is a small industrial town situated near the southwest coast of Kyushu, the most southerly of the three main islands of Japan. A similar epidemic occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. However, the damage may be minimized if … Minamata disease played an important role in environmental awareness — namely the effects of pollution — and element toxicology. Yorifuji T, Kado Y, Diez MH, Kishikawa T, Sanada S. Arch Environ Occup Health. Minamata disease (M. d.) is methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning that occurred in humans who ingested fish and shellfish contaminated by MeHg discharged in waste water from a chemical plant (Chisso Co. Ltd.). Stress Health doi: 10.1002/smi.1310. 14. Continue reading here: The teratogenic effects of methyl mercury, The All Natural Varicose and Spider Vein Solution, ELAY Emollient Intensive Skin Moisturizer, The teratogenic effects of methyl mercury, The attempted murder of Benvenuto Cellini, How DDT works and why it is toxic to insects but not mammals, Symptoms and detection of strychnine poisoning, Accumulation of chemicals in the food chain bioaccumulation and biomagnification, How paint stripper can cause carbon monoxide poisoning, Scientists Reverse Memory Loss in Alzheimers. During the early stages of the Minamata Disease crisis in Minamata, patients, who were diagnosed with Minamata Disease, seemed to be typical and sever cases of the Hunter- Russell syndrome, including sensory disturbance, concentric constriction of the visual field, ataxia, speech impairment and impaired hearing*12*13*14. They referred to cats afflicted with the disease as “the suicide-prone group of dancing cats” due to their tendency to ‘dance’ around, and then jump into the nearby bay (Ui, 1992). In the city there was a factory that manufactured the chemicals vinyl chloride (used to make the plastic PVC; see pp. The company that owned the factory, the Chisso Minamata Chemical Company, was aware of his work and by 1959 knew that it was likely that Minamata disease was caused by the effluent from their factory. It was stated that Minamata disease is the illness of the central nervous system caused by a methyl-mercury compound released into the aquatic environment as a by-product of acetaldehyde acetic acid. Minamata disease is caused through the absorption of methyl mercury into the body through various environmental sources, primarily through seafood. Over two thousand people died, and thousands more experienced crippling injuries. Typical patients with fetal-type Minamata disease (i.e., serious poisoning caused by in utero exposure to methylmercury) were born during the period of severe methylmercury pollution in 1955-1959, although they showed no abnormality during gestation nor at delivery. The Minamata Disease as an Example of Government Weakness The effects of Minamata disease, which originated in Minamata, Japan, first came to the attention of local fishermen. The Minamata Convention is named after the Japanese city of Minamata, which experienced a severe, decades-long incidence of mercury poisoning after industrial wastewater from a chemical factory was discharged into Minamata Bay.The wastewater contained methylmercury, which bioaccumulated in fish and shellfish in the bay. Epub 2009 Oct 29. Furthermore, like other industrial pollution disasters, most of the effects are concentrated in lower socio-economic groups such as labourers from primary industries - in this case fishermen and their families. In i960 methyl mercury was detected in seafood and in 1961 it was detected in sediments derived from the factory. NLM Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning) was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. The Tardive Health Effects Caused by Methylmercury Poisoning around Minamata Shigeru Takaoka Kyoritsu Neurology and Rehabilitation Clinic 1. Some had difficulty hearing or seeing. - Minamata disease. Minamata Disease, the existence of which was officially acknowledged by the government in 1956, is a ... and the level of spread and severity in harming the natural environment, leaving behind adverse effects across the local communities that lasted for a protracted period of time. A constant diet of contaminated food led to increasing amounts of methyl mercury accumulating in the bodies of the shellfish and small fish. The discovery of Minamata disease and the difficulty in determining its cause V. Social trauma and the fishermen's riot VI. Through gills and gastrointestinal tracts, fishery products such as fish, shrimp, crabs, and shellfish, take in methylmercury discharged from chemical plants into rivers and seas. Photos of small patients born with central paralysis are horrifying. The methylmercury accumulated in fish and was consumed by people eating the fish. Fish can concentrate methyl mercury to the extent of 10,000 to 100,000 times that in the surrounding water. Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment. Crossref, Google Scholar; Vogt RR, Nieuwland JA. The effluent from the factory contained inorganic mercury and perhaps also some organic mercury (methyl mercury), produced as a by-product in the chemical reaction in the plant. A congenital … Then, we introduce the studies that were conducted mainly by Sakamoto et al. Then, the local population of people that depended on fish were affected, particularly developing fetuses and children. At the same time. as follows: 2) a retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury pollution in Minamata area using preserved umbilical cord methylmercury, 3) decline in male sex ratio observed in Minamata area, 4) characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in fetal-type Minamata disease patients, 5) methylmercury transfer from mothers to infants during gestation and lactation (the role of placenta), 6) extrapolation studies using rat models on the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on the human brain, and 7) risks and benefits of fish consumption. How mercury from a Japanese factory contaminated fish in Minamata Bay. The Japanese diet contains a lot of fish, and the local fishermen and their families would eat more fish than most. Lethality Symptoms of Minamata disease were first discovered in April 1956 when children started to exhibit symptoms for an unknown disease. The factory eventually stopped the process in 1968 and in the same year the Japanese government announced its opinion that the disease was due to consumption of methyl mercury in contaminated fish and seafood. First, local cats that ate the fish began to stagger about and die. The effects of Minamata disease have primarily affected women and children. 1921. Minamata disease, or methylmercury poisoning, was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Consequently it was readily absorbed by plankton and other organisms in the sea which were the food for shellfish and small fish. And, like the cats, some people seemed to be going crazy, shouting uncontrollably. This environmental disaster led to over seventy deaths and some 2,265 cases of poisoning, yet it was many years before the company accepted liability and compensated the victims.3 The victims suffered neurological effects such as memory loss, emotional instability, and loss of muscle co-ordination. Counteraction and unconcern VII. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. The processes used inorganic mercury (mercuric oxide) as a catalyst. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma, and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. This paper presents a brief review of Minamata disease with an emphasis on the cases found in Kumamoto Prefecture. The Minamata disaster has certainly been the most outstanding example recorded of the effects of industrial irresponsibility and will remain as a never to be forgotten lesson. Geniposide attenuates cadmium‑induced oxidative stress injury via Nrf2 signaling in osteoblasts. Chapter - 4 Minamata disease. A congenital form of the disease can also affect fetuses. Iwata T, Takaoka S, Sakamoto M, Maeda E, Nakamura M, Liu XJ, Murata K. J Toxicol Sci. 2009 Dec 20;408(2):272-6. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.011. The neuropathology of Minamata disease has been well studied; this review focuses on human cases of Minamata disease in Kumamoto Prefecture. In 1956 the first case of what became known as Minamata disease was reported and then other people started to present themselves to doctors and at hospitals with various symptoms such as muscular incoordination and difficulties in speech. Minamata disease is an encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy caused by daily intake of fish and shellfish highly contaminated by methylmercury. Minamata disease: A disorder caused by methyl mercury poisoning that was first described in the inhabitants of Minamata Bay, Japan and resulted from their eating fish contaminated with mercury industrial waste. The impaired development of fetal-type Minamata disease patients was one of the most tragic and characteristic feature of Minamata disease. This effluent was discharged into the waters of Minamata Bay. These epidemics appeared during an era in which productivity took the highest priority and little consideration was given to the environment. I. Dr Hosokawa, director of the Minamata City hospital was conducting his own experiments based on the theory from the university. The result was bioaccumulation and bioconcentration of the methyl mercury. Here the mercury was converted by micro-organisms into organic mercury, which is quite different from inorganic mercury as it is not very soluble in water but very soluble in fat. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. Their pet cats, which were also eating the fish, suffered similar symptoms. 168-71) and acetaldehyde for many years. Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata City in Kumam… After a number of cases were seen, investigations started. It was in May 1956, that M. d. was first officially "discovered" in Minamata City, south-west reg … Severely affected children born with congenital Minamata disease are mental retarded and have disturbed coordination, deformities of the limbs, poor reflexes, poor nutrition and growth, and, in some cases, show other effects. 2018;73(3):258-264. doi: 10.1265/jjh.73.258. chain. Minamata disease is one of the most significant negative consequences associated with environmental pollution caused by industrial activity in the world. In this review, we first summarize 1) the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure in Minamata disease. HHS Minamata disease, sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. Yorifuji T, Kashima S, Tsuda T, Harada M. Sci Total Environ. Minamata disease; fetal-type Minamata disease; methylmercury; placental transfer. I have been working in Minamata as a medical doctor for about 30 years. In pregnant women who were taking fish, children with congenital Minamata disease were born.  |  Effect of Minamata disease status and the perception of unfairness on ill health and inequalities in health amongst residents of Shiranui Sea communities. Methylmercury, the causative agent of Minamata disease, can easily penetrate the brain, and adult-type Minamata disease patients showed neurological symptoms according to the brain regions where the neurons, mainly in the cerebrum and cerebellum, were damaged. Characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. Exhausted by the outbreak of Minamata disease, the effect of the accelerated urban drift associated with high economic growth, and the subsequent decline of the regional economy, by September 2007, the population had also declined to 28,901 persons. 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