Topographical maps, nautical charts etc show the local angle between these two (and a … The angle made by a survey line with respect to magnetic meridian is known as magnetic bearing. The angle made by a survey line with reference to the meridian is known as true bearing. If the variation is WEST, add it to the true reading If the variation is EAST, subtract it from the true reading For example, the true direction is 278 degrees and the variation is 6 degrees WEST, then the magnetic reading is 272 degrees. Magnetic bearing: The magnetic bearing of a line belongs to the horizontal angle that the line creates with the magnetic north. Thereby we see the logic in accepting a grid system for local surveying purposes. Survey bearings are "true" using the north pole as a reference. Magnetic bearing. Since the direction of true meridian remains fixed hence the true bearing of a line is constant. There are four types of bearings most commonly used in land navigation: true bearings. So for local surveying purposes, the “north” of the central meridian is adopted. In Surveying we use only the true or compass bearing. I’m a former electrical engineer turned airline pilot who is also proficient in celestial navigation, so I’ve got the background in chart reading, bearings, True/Mag N, etc. Introduction to Bearing and Distance Calculations. A true bearing is measured using the direction toward the geographic north pole as a reference point. Plant North To acquaint you with the style of compass bearings and units of distance measure, the following explanations and interactive calculators are offered. We will refer to the true bearing simply as the bearing . grid bearings. Both values would be the “true” azimuth. True bearing: True bearing of a line is the horizontal angle which it makes with the true meridian (through one of the extremities of the line). The true bearing to a point is the angle measured in degrees in a clockwise direction from the north line. But the lines XY and AB are supposed to be parallel. Express both the bearings as if they are measured from the point where the lines intersect and then apply the above rule. compass bearings. The bearing of AB is the back bearing of BA and is equal to bearing … 2. Bearings are classified into three types: True bearing; Magnetic bearing; Arbitrary Bearing; True bearing. The compass itself consists of a magnetic needle, regulated by a magnetic force, with a red tip that floats on a pivot point. Reading a compass allows you to determine the bearing, or direction, location and how to get to a specific destination on a topographic map---a map which describes the shape of the land. Obviously, the angle to XY is much smaller than the angle to AM. The surveyor's bearing and distance values, known as "survey pairs", found in the record of new roads, often use a notation and units not familiar to us 21 st century folks. True bearing: The true bearing of a line belongs to the horizontal angle among the true meridian and the survey line. The true bearing is calculated from the true north in the clockwise direction. magnetic bearings. ENGI 3703 Surveying and Geomatics Topic Instructor: Prof. Ken Snelgrove Lect 9 - Oct 1/07 Slide 5 of 10 Angle Measurement and Azimuth Calculations Azimuth Computation (Section 7.9) (don’t worry about bearing calcs in 7.10) For a closed polygon we often wish … It always remains constant. For example, if the bearings of the lines BA and AC are given, then to find angle at A, the bearings of AB must be obtained. However, compass bearings are magnetic, and they point to the magnetic north pole (which moves around a bit). In addition, I’m also using an app for my iPad called “Theodolite” that actually works and is … Bearing to a point is the angle made by a survey line with respect to meridian. 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