This common rhyme can help you remember the key differences between the Sedge, Rush, and Grass families. Four subfamilies are recognized in this article. Acrocarpus Nees. In the tribe Bisboekelereae, the bracts below the terminal female flower are united to form a perigynium somewhat similar to that of the subfamily Caricoideae, though evolved independently. Current systems of classification of the Cyperaceae divide it into two to five subfamilies. Cyperus is recognized here in a broad sense, although the genus Kyllinga is not included with it. Each of the six large genera except for Carex are primarily found in warm temperate or tropical regions, with only a few cold temperate species. This hypothesis is thought by many, including Arthur Cronquist, to introduce unnecessary complexity in floral morphology for which there is little support. Species preferring moist, sunny sites may also occur in man-made habitats such as ditches and canal banks. The pseudanthium is thought to be derived from a hypothetical prototype inflorescence in which a single female flower terminates an axis along which numerous male flowers are situated in the axils of bracts. Abildgaardia Vahl. Scirpus has many-flowered spikelets with all but the topmost bracts bearing flowers. Carex, the largest genus, is widespread throughout the world, except in desert or semidesert regions. Our study improved this classification as well as classification systems describing other typical morphotypes of Cyperaceae (Honaine et al., 2009). Thirty Eleocharis species and eight outgroups were analyzed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses. Cytological features discussed above clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity. Premise of the study: Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci for the rare sword sedge Lepidosperma gibsonii (Cyperaceae) were characterized for the future study of population structure, hybridization, and clonality. Cyperaceae, sedge family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. The uniformly unisexual flowers, however, have also prompted botanists to align it with the subfamily Sclerioideae, which has unisexual flowers as well. Some authorities have proposed a hypothesis of evolution in the Cyperaceae that is essentially the reverse direction of evolution to that presented above—that is, that unisexual flowers were the primitive condition. A suprageneric classification of the Cyperaceae is proposed, in which the genera are explicitly assigned to twelve tribes and two subfamilies. These analyses place … The Cyperoideae, the largest subfamily including about 70 genera and 2,400 species, has usually perfect flowers in simple spikes with often numerous spirally arranged or two-ranked scales. Abilgaardia Poir. https://www.britannica.com/plant/Cyperaceae. All Cyperus have a uniform embryo type and a relatively consistent morphology. SELECTED REFERENCES. What have you found?" Cyperaceae. Some are adapted to specialized habitats, including sand dunes, freshwater lakes and streams, and cliffs. Bruhl, J. The spikelet of the Caricoideae can, in theory, be derived from the Scirpus-type by a reduction in flower number and conversion to unisexual flowers, and its relationships are probably with the Cyperoideae subfamily. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The ecological diversity of sedges is tremendous, with species occurring in almost all habitats except extreme deserts and marine and deep-water ecosystems. The members are distributed throughout all the continents except Antarctica. Methods and results: Twenty samples from each of three populations were screened with the markers to assess genetic variation. The highly reduced, unisexual flowers are grouped together tightly in such a way as to simulate a single flower (pseudanthium). Semi woody:- Weeds having herbaceous stem in their early growth period and tending to become woody in their advanced growth stages e.g. The Cyperaceae, among the 10 largest families of flowering plants, contain about 5,000 species and, depending on the classification used, between 70 and 115 genera. A recent classification is that of Bruhl (1995). In recent systematic treatments of the Cyperaceae, spikelets of all but the most primitive tribes have been considered to be indeterminate, whereas historically the number of flowers, floral sex and distribution of sexes in spikelets have been important characters in suprageneric classifications. Published on the internet. Also, it assumes that the broad-leaved tropical lowland species of the subfamily Mapanioideae are the most primitive representatives of the family. The Caricoideae, the next largest subfamily, has 2,100 species dispersed among only 5 genera and is characterized by unisexual flowers with the female in single-flowered spikelets enclosed by a bract. Published on the internet. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season, sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. The interpretation of this structure, and the resulting classification, varies from author to author. Cyperaceae. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. In this article, Scirpus is recognized in a narrow sense to include only the leafy bulrushes (about 40 species) in order to more accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships within the family. Accessed 16 Sept. 2013. In the genus Hypolytrum, only the two opposite stamens and their subtending bracts are present beneath the female flower. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16. A division of the family into two subfamilies would result in the subfamily Cyperoideae with usually bisexual flowers and the subfamily Caricoideae with unisexual flowers, but many botanists consider this to be a rather arbitrary division. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Table 3 contains a summary of studies, species, the main morphotype, and the observed variations in the predominant morphotype. Stem-Cylindrical, hollow, (except Maize and Sugarcane), with nodes. Many species of sedges that occur in northern latitudes have circumpolar distributions. Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons: Subclass Commelinidae: Order Cyperales: Family Cyperaceae – Sedge family : Contains 40 Genera and 1327 accepted taxa overall : Down one level : Genus Abildgaardia Vahl – sedge P: Genus Blysmus Panzer ex Schult. The six largest genera within the Cyperaceae account for about 3,500 species, nearly three-quarters of the total species: Carex (sedges; see photograph), with about 2,000 species; Cyperus, with nearly 650 species; Rhynchospora (beak rushes), with roughly 250 species; and Fimbristylis, Eleocharis (spike rushes), and Scleria (nut rushes), each with about 200 species. The evolutionary relationships of the Caricoideae are unclear. Suprageneric classification of Cyperaceae. A division of the family into two subfamilies would result in the subfamily Cyperoideae with usually bisexual flowers and the subfamily Caricoideae with unisexual flowers, but many botanists consider this to be a rather arbitrary division. Updates? Click on names to expand them, and on P … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Goetghebeur, P. (1998) Cyperaceae. The limits of these genera are also somewhat unsettled, with the circumscription and limits of such well-known genera as Cyperus and Scirpus (bulrushes or clubrushes) being somewhat controversial. Although there is a large number of species in Arctic, temperate, and tropical regions, the diversity of genera is far greater in tropical regions. A recent classification is that of Bruhl (1995). 2013. Abstract. This common rhyme can help you remember the key differences between the Sedge, Rush, and Grass families. – bulrush P: Genus Bolboschoenus (Asch.) In the tropics, Carex is uncommon in lowlands, although often diverse in montane regions. It is based on many lines of evidence, i.e. Cyperaceae. Most sedges have triangular stems ("edges"), except for Scripus, which has round stems. Learn about the comparison between Poaceae and Cyperaceae. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is … Male flowers occur in the axils of bracts either on the rachilla extending beyond the female flower or on axes bearing perigynia. Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. Although fossil sedges are known from as early as the Eocene, they are as yet of little use in interpreting evolution in Cyperaceae because they are both fragmentary and apparently closely resemble modern groups. Northern latitudes have circumpolar distributions in wet regions throughout the world, in. Genera is similar, but the topmost bracts bearing flowers having herbaceous stem their. 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